Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

Transcutaneous Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (TENS) is similar to NMES, but utilizes different frequencies and is used mostly for pain management. It decreases pain and inflammation by providing a low level electrical current which disrupts the normal pain perception pathways. TENS also can be used to stimulate acupuncture points.


Acupuncture is the insertion of very fine needles into specific designated points on an animal. These specific points are called acupuncture points and are mapped for each species’ body. In veterinary practice, acupuncture has been used to treat musculoskeletal pain among other problems, often in conjunction with other therapies. Traditional Chinese medicine has used acupuncture for over 4000 years.

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Massage increases circulation to improve healing, decreases pain and reduces swelling. Massage can be used for acute or chronic problems by varying the pressure and intensity of the massage. It can also promote mental and physical relaxation.


Thermotherapy is the therapeutic use of physical agents or means to heat or cool the body. Superficial heating of an area increases local circulation, reduces pain, increases tissue extensibility, decreases muscle spasm and aids in muscle relaxation. Cold (cryo) therapy provides pain relief, reduces swelling and hemorrhage, and decreases muscle spasm.

Pulsed Magnetic Therapy

Pulsed magnetic field therapy was initially used to treat horses and was soon followed by treatment of racing greyhounds, since they get frequent sprains, ligament injuries and fractures, all of which respond well to pulsed magnetic field therapy. While there are multiple theories as to how it works, it is now used with all types of animals for similar injuries and has also been used to improve metabolism and overall comfort.